Professional Development Video Summaries
Read the growing list of video summaries for PD 360 videos, including all past PD 360 Videos of the Week. You will have access to the expert commentary, theories, and instruction found in the rich video library of PD 360!
Segment 01 - 02: Accelerated Schools Transform Education with Henry M. LevinAll children can learn, even those who have been identified as at-risk students. The accelerated school does not remediate, but accelerates all students to high levels of achievement. By embracing the accelerated schools philosophy and utilizing its systematic process, hundreds of schools from every socioeconomic area, both urban and rural, are seeing remarkable growth in all students. Learn more
Segment 03: Accelerated Schools Philosophy with Henry M. LevinThe accelerated schools philosophy begins with the goal, as stated by Dr. Henry M. Levin, that "the school we work in should be good enough for our own children." Three principles when worked in unison make this goal possible: unity of purpose, empowerment coupled with responsibility, and building on strengths. Learn more
Segment 04: Powerful Learning for All Students with Henry M. LevinThe philosophy culminates with the conviction that there must be powerful learning for all students.
“Powerful learning deals with curriculum,” explains Dr. Henry M. Levin. “It deals with instructional strategies, the organization of the school, and the context of learning. We assert that in order to create powerful learning situations, you cannot look just at one aspect: ‘we'll change our curriculum,’ or ‘we'll change our instructional strategy,’ or ‘we'll use block scheduling,’ or ‘we'll use visualization as an exercise.’ That's the way we've handled things in the past—always piece meal." Learn more
Segment 05: Systematic Process Galvanizes Personnel and Resources with Henry M. LevinThe accelerated schools process begins by following a path for building a foundation. It involves research and covers a period of several months in preparing the school to travel from "here to there." The transformation process begins with taking stock of the "here," where the school is now. Learn more
Segment 06: Challenges Approached Through the Inquiry Process with Henry M. LevinChallenge areas are approached by utilizing the accelerated schools inquiry process. School communities use this tool to detect the underlying causes of their challenges and to search out, implement, and assess solutions to these challenges. It begins with the first step, to focus on the challenge area. Learn more
Segment 07 - 08: Powerful Learning in Accelerated Schools with Henry M. LevinWith learning as the primary purpose of school, accelerated schools have found ways to deliver quality learning to all children. But making this happen requires time and effort. There are no quick fixes to make schools better. With the direction and focus of the entire school community, remarkable things happen in the classroom that provide powerful learning to all. Learn more
Segment 09: Three Principles, Values, and Vision for Learning with Henry M. LevinThe three accelerated schools principles, the shared values, and the school’s vision form the basis of powerful learning. The three principles are first, empowerment coupled with responsibility; second, building on strengths; and third, unity of purpose. Learn more
Segment 10: Powerful Learning Triangle with Henry M. LevinThe three dimensions of powerful learning begin with the learning triangle which is made up of “what,” “how,” and “context.” The "what," or content and curriculum, is that which the children like, need, and want to learn. The "how" concerns those instructional strategies that best help children learn. The "context" deals with which resources are utilized to produce the "what and how." The context supports and promotes the learning. Learn more
Segment 11: Examples of Powerful Learning in the Classroom with Henry M. LevinThe following classroom examples reflect the philosophy and dimensions of powerful learning. Some of these are big wheel innovations from the cadres while others are little wheel innovations created by the team or classroom teacher. Learn more
Classroom Management, Elementary Edition
Proactive Classroom Management
Understanding classroom management is a prerequisite to becoming a great educator. As a beginning pilot needs skills to fly, so do beginning teachers need skills to get their careers off the ground. When educators create a community of learners who are self-managers, teachers and students both benefit. A well-managed classroom nurtures learning. Like a pilot knowing his instrument control panel teachers must understand the principles and procedures that make a classroom run smoothly.
In part one of this issue, the importance of bonding and connecting and the need for procedures and routines were presented.
Teaching Social and Emotional Behaviors
Julie Kent provides opportunities for her kindergarten class at Vine Elementary to gain social and emotional skills they may not have obtained elsewhere. While some students seem to fit right in, others struggle, bringing with them social and emotional issues. Mrs. Kent provides support and understanding for each student.
“The child that you saw me interact with today is a child who needs a lot of support, a lot of understanding, and responds best when I can give that to him,” Kent says. “Each child is an individual. Each child needs something different and that's probably one of the hardest jobs of becoming a teacheror a parent, is changing hats for each child because they all need something different. And you've got to be aware of what those needs are.”
Some students are so used to getting put down, that all they know is how to put others down.
Classroom Management, Secondary Edition
Classroom Management: Addressing Misbehavior
In addressing misbehavior, how it is addressed makes all the difference for a beginning teacher.
Kirwin and Mendlore set up these four goals that I honestly and truly believe in,” says Carol Cummings, a renowned leader in teacher education, “and I think we can handle those behaviors.
The four goals are: maintain student dignity; create a lasting change; keep cool by being a model of social and emotional intelligence, and use punishment as a rare and last resort.
Classroom Management: The Law of Least Intervention
The proactive teacher uses the law of least intervention, a way of managing minor classroom disruptions without giving them a lot of attention.
“All that means is we want to use the least amount of interruption to the classroom environment,” says Carol Cummings, a renowned leader in teacher education. “That means the least amount of negative feeling or tone so that we don't destroy the learning environment for the majority of the kids in our classroom.”
Teacher Rita Claricurzio defuses the problem of a frustrated student without calling attention to or humiliating her.
Collaboration and Peer Coaching
Segment 01: Introduction and Teacher Isolation with Pam RobbinsTeachers and even students of today often feel isolated, as did their counterparts of decades ago. Collaboration provides a way to renew and enrich the educational experience for everyone in a school (or learning) environment. Teachers often feel disconnected from others in the school. They experience frustration at not being able to influence what happens. Learn more
Segment 02: Rationale of Collaboration with Pam RobbinsThe rationale of collaboration revolves around the concept of building trust among peers. Before a formal observation system can be put into place, educators must feel that they trust each other to see their successes and failures. Learn more
Segment 03: Benefits to Educators and Students with Pam RobbinsAs collaboration develops, professional growth is nurtured and instructional and curricular skills increase. Before strategies that foster collaborative work are presented, it is important to recognize that some of these activities are low risk and do not threaten staff with the fear that they will have to expose their professional selves. Learn more
Segment 04: Intro to Formal Peer Coaching with Pam RobbinsTeachers have seldom had the opportunity to share what they know and to learn from other teachers. With peer coaching, teachers reflect on their own performance, solve problems, learn from others, and contribute to the teaching profession. Learn more
Segment 05: 3 Types of Formal Peer Coaching with Pam RobbinsThe three types of formal peer coaching include mirroring, collaborative and expert. Each of the three types of coaching has the same three phases in practice of pre-conference, observation and post-conference. Learn more
Segment 06: Examples of Peer CoachingIn formal peer coaching, there are three types of coaching: mirror, collaborative, and expert. Dr. Robbins begins the video segment by explaining mirror coaching.
“In terms of the formal coaching process,” says Dr. Pam Robbins, “there are actually three different types of coaching that occur. They all have the pre conference in common. But with mirroring, after the observation, the post conference sounds like this: ‘Phil, here's the data you asked me to collect for you. If you have any questions, just get back to me. Thanks.’ And then off I go.”
Common Core 360 Standards Training
A Quick Note on Applying Learning Progressions
There are separate learning progressions for Reading Literature and Reading Informational Text within the English language arts standards. Each of the ELA learning progressions can readily be traced from Kindergarten through 12th grade, leading to college and career readiness as defined by the ELA and literacy Anchor Standards. The Math Standards progressions, on the other hand, cannot so easily be traced. The learning progression is not as clearly marked because certain math concepts may be learned simultaneously or may be successfully sequenced in various ways.
Believing in Equity through Common Core Standards
When a school system becomes equitable, it helps all students not only succeed in each grade and graduate, but prepares them for college, career, and life beyond schooling. A root cause of the achievement gap occurs when educators work in silos with little collaboration at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. With the Common Core standards, educators nationwide can create a national community of practice. With the use of digital communication, the alignment of standards-based learning targets presents new potential for sharing innovative instructional designs, authentic assessment, and effective intervention strategies across district and state lines.
College and Career Readiness, Segment 3
The new Common Core Standards define a common destination where all students are expected to arrive by the time they graduate from high school. The College and Career Readiness Standards, also called Anchor Standards in the English Language Arts Common Core, describe the destination: the essential proficiencies students need to ensure adequate preparation for college and career success.
College, Career, and 21st Century ReadinessThe new Common Core Standards define a common destination where all students are expected to arrive by the time they graduate from high school. The college and career readiness standards (also called “anchor standards” in the English Language Arts Common Core) describe the destination: the essential proficiencies students need to ensure adequate preparation for college and career success.
These college and career readiness proficiencies are intentionally aligned with the highest order thinking skills, such as application, analysis and evaluation. These skills are merged with essential 21st Century skills such as collaboration, communication, adaptability and critical thinking.
Common Core Impacting Teaching and LearningThe focus of educational practice has shifted to an emphasis on teaching and learning in the classroom. At the end of the day, educational outcomes are shaped, defined and driven by what happens in the classroom between teacher and student.
In meeting the educational needs of our nation’s children, teachers are on the front lines. Though states set policy and allocate funds, districts strategically plan, and directors of curriculum, content specialists and instructional coaches build capacity, it is ultimately the school-level educators who determine the quality of the day-to-day classroom experience of their students. It is the teachers who create classroom culture, define learning targets, plan lessons, deliver instruction and assess learning.
Creating State UnityState adoption of the Common Core Standards will have a far-reaching impact. Elected officials, teachers, administrators, students, principals, parents, business owners, and taxpayers each have a stake in the educational outcomes. The leaders of Kentucky agree that successful implementation will require state unity. They successfully unified the people of Kentucky behind the common core initiative. This journey started with the passing of Senate Bill 1. Learn more
Educational Equity in the Common Core
One of the most egregious issues facing the American public education system is pervasive systemic inequity in student learning represented most acutely by the persistent racial and economic achievement gaps.
Finding the Achievement GapA root cause of the achievement gap occurs when educators work in silos with little collaboration at the state, district, school and classroom levels. With the Common Core Standards, educators nationwide can create a national community of practice. With the use of digital communication, the alignment of standards-based learning targets presents new potential for sharing innovative instructional designs, authentic assessment and effective intervention strategies across district and state lines. Educators can access this resource bank of best-known practices to better meet student needs across content areas and across a diverse array of student profiles. Learn more
Framework for Common Core StandardsThe Common Core Standards define learning expectations for mathematics and the English language arts.
The goal of the Common Core initiative is to standardize and advance the educational experience of students across the country, prepare ALL students for college and career, and enable them to participate successfully in a global culture and economy.
Framework for Learning Progression
An effective learning progression framework relies upon equitably meeting the learning needs of every student, until each student achieves mastery. Within this student-centered approach, teachers act as facilitators of learning rather than administers of knowledge. The pedagogy that drives the standards-based learning progression is a responsive instructional model—teachers adapt instruction to serve individual student aptitudes, behaviors, and needs. Students learn to reflect, analyze, integrate and further develop their cognitive skills. The Common Core helps students explore ideas, systems and relationships.
Making PLCs GlobalThe Common Core Standards have brought new alignment to educational practice. Learning targets, instruction, assessment, data analysis and intervention, are being aligned to the same standards, across school, district and state lines. There has never been a better time for educators from across the nation to create a national forum, a national professional learning community, for sharing best educational practice for the sake of every child in every school across America. Learn more
More on College and Career Readiness
The new Common Core Standards define a common destination where all students are expected to arrive by the time they graduate from high school. The College and Career Readiness Standards, also called Anchor Standards in the English Language Arts Common Core, describe the destination: The essential proficiencies students need to ensure adequate preparation for college and career success. These college and career readiness proficiencies are intentionally aligned with the highest order thinking skills such as application, analysis, and evaluation; and merged with essential twenty-first century skills such as collaboration, communication, adaptability, and critical thinking.
The Gift of ChoiceBecause the Common Core Standards define what students should know and be able to do at each grade level, these standards guide teachers as they plan and teach standards-based lessons, conduct assessments and target interventions. Because these standards have been backward-mapped, with a clear definition of college and career readiness in mind, they create alignment between planning, instruction, assessment, and desired results.
Much like a DNA molecule provides the genetic code for developing human life, the Common Core offers a blueprint and the building blocks for academic and career success in the world of the future.
The Purpose of EducationThe purpose of education has always been clear: Prepare all students for their future. But the policy and structure of public education in the U.S. has not always clearly supported educators in achieving this goal.
We must keep in mind is that the problem—and the solution—focus on the efficiency of the system. As the system improves, teachers have more capacity to bring their full expertise and passion for education to bear. Though there are ineffective teachers (just as there are ineffective people in every profession), the majority of teachers are talented individuals who are in need of training and reform.
What Is the Learning Progression?The Common Core Standards are woven into clear and developmentally aligned learning progressions that chart a course from kindergarten through college readiness. A learning progression is a sequenced set of aligned standards that students must master in order to graduate prepared for life beyond school. Learn more
What They Have and Why We Need ItAs students graduate from K-12 public education systems across the United States, there is profound variance across state lines in the knowledge and skills students possess. Furthermore, there has been limited collaboration around how to effectively prepare students to become successful participants in the global context of the 21st Century. Learn more
Segment 01: Why Schools Are Isolated with James Comer“When parents are involved or community members are involved,” says Richard Santeusanio, the superintendent in Danvers, Massachusetts, “we involve them because they're going to help us make good decisions.” Learn more
Segment 02: Barriers to Parental Involvement with James ComerFostering parental involvement requires an understanding of the barriers that get in the way of such a critical source of support. Dr. Comer has noted that parents are oftentimes reluctant to become involved with their child's school because of previous negative experiences as either children or adults. Learn more
Segment 03: Levels of Parental Involvement with James ComerOnce barriers are identified, a school can take steps to increase parental involvement. As Dr. James Comer states, such involvement must be meaningful. Learn more
Segment 04: Parents as Decision Makers with James ComerDecision making is a critical part of parents participating in school management. Learn more
Segment 05: Reaching Out to the Community with James ComerBy adopting the concept that it takes a whole village to raise a child, schools can better meet the rapidly changing and challenging needs of today's students. This includes reaching out and inviting the community to become an active partner in education. It is the responsibility of teachers and administration to reach out to the community. Learn more
Segment 06: Making Schools a Center of the Community with James ComerIn order for schools to become centers of the community, schools must not only benefit from the community, but they must be a benefit to the community as well. Learn more
Segment 07: Dealing with Criticism with James ComerWhile school can become a center of the community, it can also become a target of criticism. Sharing information and apprising the community of what is going on in schools can dispel much misunderstanding. Learn more
Compliance Series: Bloodborne Pathogens
Segment 01: IntroAs a professional educator you may come across extraordinary circumstances in your day-to-day interactions with students. The information in this program is designed to inform and educate you should you find yourself in such a situation. Learn more
Segment 02: OSHA StandardsThis is the second segment of the compliance issue “Dealing with Bloodborne Pathogens.” In segment one, we reviewed bloodborne pathogens, which are dangerous microorganisms in the blood that can be transmitted through blood and other body fluids. Learn more
Segment 03: Avoiding ExposureThis is the third segment of the compliance issue: “Dealing with Bloodborne Pathogens.” In previous segments we gave a brief overview of bloodborne pathogens, and an introduction to OSHA Standards.
In this program, “Bloodborne Pathogens: Avoiding Exposure,” we will review in detail the following:
• Universal Precautions
• Personal Protective Equipment and its use
• Work practices
• What to do with contaminated equipment and infected materials
Segment 04: Post-Exposure Evaluation and Follow-UpThis is the final segment of the compliance issue: “Dealing with Bloodborne Pathogens.” In previous segments a brief overview of bloodborne pathogens, an introduction to OSHA Standards, and how to avoid exposure were given.
In this program, “Bloodborne Pathogens: Post-Exposure Evaluation and Follow-Up,” we will review in detail:
• What to expect in evaluation and follow-up
• Information for the healthcare professional handling the case
• What the healthcare professional’s written opinion should include, and
• Logs and Records
Compliance Series: Bullying in Schools
Bullying in Schools: Intro
There is an infection intruding in the learning environment, which is negatively affecting the well-being of students. The intrusion isn’t an unknown force; it’s their own classmates. It is bullying.
According to the U.S. Department of Education, violence has declined in schools, but incidents of bullying have increased by five percent between the years of nineteen ninety-nine to two thousand and three. The N.E.A. has stated that bullying has been identified as a major concern by schools across the U.S. A., and the growing trend of “cyber bullying” has filled the news. In the past these issues have largely been dismissed with a “boys will be boys” mentality. However, in recent years an audible outcry of parents, students, and teachers has called for an end to this plague.
This compliance issue will deal with “bullying,” and its tech-savvy counterpart, cyber bullying. In this segment we will give a definition and overview of this issue, followed by segments 2 and 3 which give an in depth coverage of cyber bullying and intervention.
Segment four will outline individual follow-up and support for students.
How to Stop Bullies: Cyber-Bullying
The nation was shocked in 2008 as the story of a thirteen-year-old girl committing suicide, as a result of being bullied with online messages, hit the airwaves. Megan Meier, of Dardenne Prairie, Missouri died a month before her fourteenth birthday, after a fall out with an “online friend.” Unfortunately the sixteen-year-old boy “Josh Evans” never existed. He was a fabrication of Lori Drew the mother of a former friend of Megan, her daughter, and a fellow employee of Drew. The MySpace account was created to “get information about [Megan] to later humiliate her.”
This was one of the first reported cases of cyberbullying, involving the use of a tech savvy resource. With the increase in social networking sites such as MySpace, Facebook, and Twitter, access to bullying a student doesn’t end when they go home. Instant messaging, texting and e-mail—all of which are useful tools for communication—are now being used as weapons in the arsenal of bullies.
How to Stop Bullies: Top 10 Strategies
The classroom is a model of society, an area where students learn how to interact with peers, develop learning, and implement skills that will impact the rest of their lives. Teachers have a unique opportunity to educate and support students in this society. It is important that students feel safe to develop and learn in an environment free of criticism and bullying. In this segment we will review ten strategies that represent “best practice” in bully prevention and intervention. These strategies come from the U.S. Health and Human Resources website “Stop-Bullying Now” and are base in part upon the work of Susan P. Limber, and her article “What Works and Doesn't Work in Bullying Prevention and Intervention."
The first strategy is to focus on the social environment of the school. In order to reduce bullying, it is important to change the social climate of the school and the social norms with regards to bullying. This requires the efforts of everyone in the school environment—teachers, administrators, counselors, school nurses and other non-teaching staff: such as bus drivers, custodians, cafeteria workers, and school librarians. Parents and students are also key in this effort. Everyone has an opportunity to influence the environment of their school.
Concept-Based Curriculum for Deeper Understanding
Segment 01: Fact-Based Knowledge with Dr. H. Lynn Erickson In attempting to keep pace with expanding knowledge in our fast-paced world, educators who design curriculum feel pressure to keep adding more and more content. Learn more
Segment 02: Topics to Concepts with Dr. H. Lynn EricksonAdding more and more facts with topics to a knowledge base is an endless process. However, the numberless quantity of facts combined with topics narrows to a few fundamental concepts. A concept is an organizing idea; a mental construct; a schema for students to form patterns in new information. Examples of concepts are change, time, conflict, line, symmetry, and ratio. There are many concepts teachers can choose from, some of which are very specific to a particular discipline such as organism in science or civilization in social studies. However, some concepts such as change can be applied to many disciplines. Learn more
Segment 03: Enduring Understanding with Dr. H. Lynn EricksonThe goal of basing curriculum on concepts is for students to arrive at an enduring understanding. An enduring understanding is a generalized big idea comprised of two or more concepts in a relationship. They are summaries of thought. According to Dr. H. Lynn Erickson, enduring understanding answers the question, “What do I really understand as a result of my study?” Learn more
Segment 04: Designing a Concept-Based Unit with Dr. H. Lynn EricksonTossing ever increasing amounts of fact-based knowledge at students is not preparing them for the complex world of today and tomorrow. By basing curriculum on concepts, rather than facts, students become prepared for the world of accelerating change. Learn more
Segment 05: Scaffolding with Dr. H. Lynn EricksonScaffolding enables educators to push thinking to higher levels by using "why," "how," or "so what" questions. Learn more
Segment 06: Guiding Questions with Dr. H. Lynn EricksonEffective guiding questions will engage students in the learning process.
Dr. H. Lynn Erickson says, “When you ask questions, instead of just driving your teaching through verbs linked to topics, you engage students’ personal intellect again. So, we're going full circle. When you teach to ideas and you develop and structure a set of questions to force their thinking toward those ideas through your topic then what you get are students who are personally, intellectually, and emotionally engaged because they want to answer the question.”
Segment 07: The Culminating Performance Task with Dr. H. Lynn EricksonThe next step is to decide which generalization to assess.
Dr. H. Lynn Erickson explains to a group of teachers, “Take one of those verbs and then list the theme of your unit and write it out. So in the ‘why’ statement, in order to understand that, pick one of your generalizations, a very important one that you would like to assess for deep understanding. And write that after the ‘why’ statement in order to understand that and then complete it with your generalization. Then put a period and do the performance. The performance comes after the ‘how.’”
Segment 01: Introduction with Patricia RoyFor decades, students in educational settings have been detached from others. Such isolation in the learning environment results from competitiveness which has created separation and loneliness. For many, the consequences have been a diminished self-esteem and less than ideal learning experiences. When done appropriately, cooperative learning greatly enhances the quality of education for all students. Learn more
Segment 02: 5 Critical Attributes with Patricia RoyFive critical attributes of cooperative learning are positive interdependence, individual accountability, promotive interactions, interpersonal training, and group processing. Positive interdependence is critical to cooperative learning, and teachers must help groups develop this attribute so that they can work together and begin to develop the other four attributes. Learn more
Segment 03: Research, Misconceptions, and Concerns with Patricia RoyResearch substantiates that cooperative strategies are best for certain types of learning. Cooperative learning works in all subject areas with all ages, even at the kindergarten level. Learn more
Segment 04: Making It Work with Patricia RoyExperience has proven that there are specific procedures that when followed can help students develop life skills for working cooperatively with others. Teachers of any age group can effectively apply these procedures and have success with cooperative learning. Learn more
Segment 05: Organizing Groups with Patricia RoyOrganizing groups into effective, cooperative learning teams begins with the five attributes of cooperative learning. The process begins with positive interdependence and individual accountability, which help unlock the door to cooperative learning. Learn more
Segment 06: Trust, Training, and Flexibility with Patricia RoyStudents develop trust in the teacher and in their classmates as they receive the proper training from teachers who demonstrate flexibility in their teaching strategies. Promotive interactions facilitate group work through students supporting and encouraging each other. This will never happen until trust exists between students. Trust-building activities are a valuable tool to nurture and sustain effective cooperative work. Learn more
Segment 07: Dealing with Conflict in Group Processing with Patricia RoyThe goal of education is to prepare students for the future. Dealing with conflict is an essential skill that students learn in any group setting, be it amongst peers, at work, or in a classroom. Learn more
Segment 01: Making Connections with Heidi Hayes JacobsCurriculum can be redesigned and integrated in a variety of ways. Curriculum integration can strengthen the importance of the disciplines, and it brings greater meaning to learning. Teaming and planning are essential for good interdisciplinary work. Learn more
Segment 02: Curriculum Mapping with Heidi Hayes JacobsCurriculum mapping helps teachers chart the course through variations in the disciplines, the first phase of curriculum integration. Mapping is the first phase of any attempt at integrated curriculum and should be approached with intensity and honesty. Learn more
Segment 03: Curriculum Integration with Heidi Hayes JacobsCurriculum integration helps students as much or more than it helps teachers. Curriculum integration can unite a school and a district and give teachers accountability to each other and a sense of belonging as they participate in the larger effort to improve learning and education. Learn more
Segment 04: Careful Planning and Teamwork with Heidi Hayes Jacobs“You are curriculum designers and what you design is what you'll get,” Dr. Heidi Hayes Jacobs says emphatically. “If you design subject isolation, you'll get it. If you design meaningful connections, you'll get it. If you design trivial connections, you'll get those, too. It is in your hands. And the curriculum is something you choose, shape, alter, and select. It is not handed to us. No matter whether state educational departments hand it to us or schools hand it to us. You shape it. You can play with it. You can examine it. You can work with it. And you do it, anyway. The issue is how deliberate and conscious we are.” Learn more
Segment 05: Introduction to Planning with Heidi Hayes JacobsPlanning is essential for successful curriculum integration and is most effective when done with other teachers. In this segment, you will learn that the first step is to select a unit or theme which is the organizing center. Next, brainstorming ideas with other teachers and students is essential to develop materials within the disciplines to go into the organizing center. Then essential questions must be carefully written. Finally, activities should be organized that will help students explore the essential questions. Learn more
Segment 06: Brainstorming and Essential Questions with Heidi Hayes JacobsWhen the organizing center has been defined, the next step in planning is brainstorming.
“You should start by brainstorming alone, individually, for a minute to a minute and a half before you ever, ever, have a group do it,” Dr. Heidi Hayes Jacobs explains emphatically. “You'll get three to four more times the responses. Teachers brainstorm associations between the disciplines as they relate to the organizing center.”
Segment 07: Planning Activities with Heidi Hayes JacobsWith the essential questions clearly defined, teachers have their anchor for planning activities. Learn more
Data-Driven Decisions to Improve Results
Creating Meaningful Student Achievement Goals
Effective teamwork leads to creating meaningful student achievement goals. As renowned education expert Mike Schmoker puts it, “a goal is a dream with a deadline.”
James L. Kieffer, superintendent at Glendale Union High School District inGlendale, Arizona, discusses the importance of emphasizing student achievement in schools.
“When you say you focus on student achievement,” he explains, “that becomes a driving force and that's the question you constantly ask. Whatever the setting might be—be it members of the top administrators of the district or principals' meeting, or whatever—discussion is going on.”
Equity and Innovation: Standards-Based Schools
Functions of a Standards-Based School
In standards-based schools, education is a partnership between students and teachers. Teachers group students by instructional level, not grade level. Teachers approve progression based on mastery of content, not time. Teachers act as facilitators; students assume responsibility for goal setting and proficiency on specific learning targets. Together they create learning-centered environments in the classroom for students to personalize their learning goals and communicate their progress. Teachers and students conference to allow students to demonstrate mastery. Teachers and students track evidence and learning targets.
Mary Esselman, the Assistant Superintendent for the Kansas City Missouri School District in Kansas City, Missouri discusses how others might view standard-based schools.
“I think a lot of people actually think that standards-based school just means that we work on standards and show mastery,” she explains. “But for us it’s really different and we’ve started talking about it more as student-centered learning.”
Standards-Based School as a Foundation of the Common Core
Common Core State Standards have been set in place to define exactly what students need to know to enable them to succeed academically in credit-bearing, college entry courses and in workforce training programs. These standards represent a set of expectations for student knowledge and skills in English language arts and mathematics.
While most states have adopted the Common Core Standards, many still have questions about how to implement them into curriculum. Kansas City District, as an early adopter of the Common Core Standards, has incorporated a blended approach to make the Standards a key component of the curriculum. They have integrated these Common Core Standards into their standards-based schools.
In SBS classrooms, learning is guided by the Common Core expectations and is achieved through student-driven activities. Students’ learning levels are determined by their own pace, not by grade levels.
The Common Core Standards act as a guide for proficiency that builds on concepts from one grade to the next. The Common Core Standards are met within the SBS classrooms. The student-led process and teacher facilitators make the SBS classroom unique.
Steve Fraley, an educator, explains, “Conferencing for us is really a time where we can sit down with one student, talk about what they’re thinking and kind of get a feel of what they know.”
Gretchen Penner is a teacher at King/Weeks Elementary in Kansas City, Missouri. She explains conferencing more in-depth.
“Conferencing for the younger students, I think, looks a little bit different than for intermediate students,” she explains. “For me it’s not set, you sign up that you are ready to conference with Miss Penner. It’s more while we are working on things; we might do evidence in a small group and we’re conferencing at the same time. It may be this is, these are, going over the bar graph, this is what we’ve completed and this is where we need to go, and what you think you can work on out of the choices that we have next,” she says. “Conferencing is not quite as scheduled for the primary students; it’s more on an as needed basis. But the students definitely are conferenced with, and they know where they are, where they need to go and what they’re working on,” she says.
Exploring the Common Core
Globalizing Our PLCs
The Common Core Standards have brought new alignment to educational practice. Learning targets, instruction, assessment, data analysis, and intervention, are being aligned to the same standards, across school, district and state lines. There has never been a better time for educators from across the nation to create a national professional learning community for sharing best educational practice for the sake of every child in every school across America.
Impacting the Teaching and Learning Cycle
In meeting the educational needs of our nation’s children, teachers are on the front lines. Though states set policy and allocate funds, districts strategically plan, and directors of curriculum, content specialists and instructional coaches build capacity, ultimately it is the school-level educators who determine the quality of the day-to-day classroom experience of their students. It is the teachers who create classroom culture, define learning targets, plan lessons, deliver instruction, and assess learning.
Helping Disruptive Students
Segment 01: Introduction to 4 Unfulfilled Needs with Diane Chelsom GossenIn this lesson topic, you will learn that the cause of student misbehavior and low achievement in school is the result of unfulfilled needs. Children can learn to understand their own needs and begin to develop self-control. Learn more
Segment 02: Role Involvement with Diane Chelsom GossenWhen a student’s needs are met (as discussed in the previous segment), they are prepared to accept their environment and learn. But even a student whose needs are met needs an environment that helps them define their role. Role involvement is crucial for both students and teachers because it helps both parties to understand how to interact. In this segment, Diane Chelsom Gossen, a reality therapist and specialist in behavior, will explain certain aspects of role involvement that will help teachers manage their classrooms and will help students understand what is and what is not acceptable. Learn more
Segment 03: The Ability to Control Themselves with Diane Chelsom GossenThe majority of students have the ability to control themselves, though almost every student also needs help cultivating that ability. These concepts are cornerstones for reality therapy. Many more ideas and time proven strategies exist. For those just beginning to recognize the driving forces of children, it is important to understand that the primary focus in reality therapy is to give students the ability to control themselves. Learn more
Segment 04: Reality Therapy with Diane Chelsom GossenReality therapy helps educators understand techniques that help students develop a sense of responsibility for their actions. The tools of reality therapy include questions which can be asked of any student in any situation. These questions help students determine what they want, what their actions are, if their actions are getting them what they want, and if there is a better way to get what they want. Learn more
Segment 05: Tones and Gestures with Diane Chelsom GossenTones and gestures—signals that communicate without words—are among the most effective and yet unexamined methods of communicating. One of the most critical aspects of using questions is the tone in which they are presented: a tone that expresses kindness, acceptance, and understanding. Psychology research shows that interpersonal communication happens through multiple facets. The approximate breakdown of how a message is communicated is as follows: Learn more
Segment 06: Rules and Procedures with Diane Chelsom GossenRules and procedures help teachers remind a student or a class of what is expected in the classroom. The reality therapy questions discussed in this section are easy for a teacher to understand, but some students are either unable or unwilling to answer. The classroom rules and expectations discussed earlier in this segment help a teacher regain control, especially if a student proves to be particularly difficult for whatever reason, and show the student how to meet his or her needs. Learn more
Segment 07: Learning Reality Therapy Questions with Diane Chelsom GossenLearning reality therapy questions can help your students correct their behavior and become part of the classroom. Some students, however, refuse to cooperate. When dealing with particularly difficult students, educators need to understand the principles of the reality therapy questions in order to help even the most challenging students. Learn more
Segment 08: Parents and Reality Therapy with Diane Chelsom GossenParents are vital to the dynamics in the classroom when they understand reality therapy and the work that teachers are trying to accomplish with their children. Parents generally want to help their children improve behavior at school, because it may also be reflected at home. Learn more
High School Scheduling
Segment 01 - 02: Utilizing Time with Robert Lynn CanadyQuality learning activities that can heighten student achievement exist, but due to insufficient time, they are not always used. This program will show how greater amounts of classroom time can be organized in high schools and how teachers can use that time more effectively with students. Learn more
Segment 03: Enhancing Teaching and Learning with Robert Lynn Canady“If we could go to longer blocks of time and do more in depth kind of learning—and I think in depth kind of learning comes primarily from application and being involved and doing something—if we could do more of that kind of work in classes, if anything you'd expect retention to go up,” Dr. Robert Lynn Canady explains. Learn more
Segment 04: Intro to Scheduling with Robert Lynn CanadyFour basic types of block schedules exist as influenced by different time segments. The way the day is organized, the way the week is organized, and the way the year is organized. The four scheduling options include periods in a day. Learn more
Segment 05: Implementing New Scheduling with Robert Lynn CanadyUnderstanding the first steps of implementation will aid any group of educators who want to open up their schedule. Learn more
Segment 06 - 07: Staff Development with Robert Lynn CanadyWhen faced with the possibility of having students for larger blocks of time, teachers will often ask, "What do I do with all this time?" This program shows many examples of how high school teachers use the time to help students reach higher levels of achievement. Learn more
Segment 08: Formula to Keep Learning Active with Robert Lynn Canady“I have found that the teachers who are most successful with a block kind of schedule,” explains Dr. Robert Lynn Canady, “plan lessons in about three segments. I would say they tend to spend the first thirty minutes or so in explanation. The basic format is that the teacher explains what students will learn that day. At that point, they're pretty much in charge." Learn more
Segment 09: Opportunities for Student Achievement with Robert Lynn CanadyNew opportunities are created by block scheduling. Time is the greatest gift of the block schedule.
“It was student generated,” Marilynn Grant, a social studies teacher in Rochester, New York, says of a student activity demonstrated in this video. “I gave them the opportunity to share with me how we might study Japan. Giving consideration to the regular schedule that we had before, the shorter time period, this kind of activity would be very, very difficult to achieve. A lot of class time was devoted to completing the various project activities.”
Segment 10: Problem Solving with Robert Lynn CanadyThis segment will acknowledge and examine valid concerns with changing a school’s schedule.
The first problem in the day 1/day 2 or alternating day schedule will be the perception by some that certain classes must be taught every day rather than every other day. Objections may come primarily from foreign language, music and math teachers.
Segment 01: Philosophy and Rationale with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointThrough the years great strides have been made in the quality of education, but the effort to educate all children has often fallen short. Inclusion means all; it means making education for everyone more complete and meaningful. This program introduces the philosophy and rationale of inclusion: everyone has a right to a quality education and that all children learn better when they feel included with their peers. Learn more
Segment 02: Right to a Quality Education with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointAll individuals have the need to belong. We all want to learn and contribute to society, and each of us has that right as citizens of a democratic nation. Everyone, then, is entitled to a quality education. Learn more
Segment 03: Teachers Can Succeed with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointTeachers can succeed at inclusion when they have the support of their leaders.
“I see my role as supporting the school, and providing the resources the school needs, whether it's human resources, whether it's materials, whether it's something as simple as putting in a ramp to make a child's entry into school much more comfortable,” says Teresa Freedman, an assistant superintendent in Oshawa, Ontario.
Segment 04: Work Together with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointClassrooms are communities of learners, and inclusion expands that community to involve everyone capable of learning. Learn more
Segment 05: Tools of Inclusion with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointInclusion brings students together to participate in quality learning environments that benefit everyone. Specific tools are available to help make inclusion effective, but without a deep belief that truly all can belong and learn, no tool can work. Learn more
Segment 06: Help Any Child or Teacher in Any School with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointInclusive classrooms provide a home for all children.
“They're normal to me,” says Bonnie Wenzl, a sixth grade teacher in Forest Grove, Oregon. “There is no difference as far as I'm concerned, so when they come into my classroom, it's no big deal. They're just part of the class.”
Segment 07: Circles of Friends with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointJack and Marsha have refined three tools that when utilized fortify educators with a plan that will maximize the greatest potential for successful inclusion.
Marsha Forest says, “Our tools involve things like building circles of friends and team building for teachers, for sure. We know that good schools have teams. Number two, we have a tool called ‘MAPs,’ which helps to look with the class at who this particular child is, his dreams, his strengths, and what he needs. And then, we have a very exciting tool that uses a graphic with it called ‘PATH,’ which has people looking at the future and then coming back and deciding what to do in order to get there.”
Segment 08: Making Action Plans with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointThe second tool is Making Action Plans, or MAPs, which is a series of questions to unlock the door to who a person truly is. A MAP can be done for an entire school, a class or family, as well as an individual. A map is a planning process that gets information out about a situation. It's a preliminary design for problem solving. People should never attempt this activity for another person until they have done it on themselves. Learn more
Segment 09: PATH - Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope with Marsha Forest and Jack PearpointWith the completion of the MAP process, data has been gathered. Often, the plan of action leaps out from the information, and it is a simple discipline to assign tasks and move forward. In some instances, situations are more complex, and the plan of action needs a more focused tool, "PATH"— Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope. Learn more
Segment 01: Introduction with William W. Purkey and Judy Brown LehrInvitational education brings students together to focus on a common goal. At the foundation of invitational education are the learner and his or her perceptions of the world, individual self-concept, and personal placement in that world. Educators must be aware of and teach to the self-conceptions of their students. Learn more
Segment 02: Inviting and Disinviting with William W. Purkey and Judy Brown LehrJudy Brown Lehr has stated that invitational education is a “mental health approach” to education. The brain will perceive its surroundings as positive or negative, good or bad, comforting or malignant. Not all aspects of one’s surroundings are necessarily one or the other, but educators always have the chance to choose if posters, signs, policies, words, and methods are positive or negative. If something about the school—like a blank wall, for example—is neither one nor the other, educators can also choose to make an element of the school into something more inviting. Learn more
Segment 03: Perceptions, Self-Concept, and Assumptions with William W. Purkey and Judy Brown LehrEducational specialist William W. Purkey explained the foundation of invitational education in the following way: “When I talk about the invitational model, it's based on two foundations: One foundation is what we call the perceptual tradition. Perceptual tradition means that people behave according to how they see things. . . . The second platform on which the invitational model is based is self-concept theory. . . . Self-concept deals with opinions and beliefs that you hold to be true about your own existence.” Learn more
Segment 04: The 5 P’s with William W. Purkey and Judy Brown LehrAs educators focus on implementing invitational education, they have created five areas to focus on and improve: people, places, policies, programs, and processes. Learn more
Segment 05: Introduction to School Practices with William W. Purkey and Judy Brown LehrWhether intentionally or unintentionally, every facet of the school is inviting or disinviting. Every school has an “IQ”: invitational quotient. Sadly, some school policies, places, programs, and processes have a low IQ and are disinviting with rampant orange doses of cohesion, punishment, exclusion, and hostility. Such practices make school a disinviting place where vandalism abounds, teachers complain, and kids fail.” Learn more
Segment 06: Personal and Professional Growth Benefits with William W. Purkey and Judy Brown LehrThe topic of invitational education has heretofore addressed the needs of the students; but before educators can provide a place for students to feel at ease, they must first give themselves a comfortable working environment with personal and professional growth benefits.
According to Judy Brown Lehr, “We talk a lot about the importance of people inviting themselves, first personally and then professionally. Particularly in working with teachers, we say to them, ‘You've got to first give to yourself before you can give to the many, many challenges now in the classroom.’”
Job-Embedded Professional Development
Job-Embedded Professional Development: Benefits for Teachers
“The challenge for our school is, on the one hand, personalized professional development for individual teachers, but do it in coordination with the focus for you as a school and that's a lot easier said than done when there's only so many hours in a day,” says Principal James Person of Stone Bridge High in Sterling, Virginia.
One of the benefits of an on-demand tool like PD 360 is that teachers can access the videos they need to watch at any time of the day. This frees up valuable school time for other vital activities. To fully take advantage of PD 360’s on-demand qualities, administrators can encourage teachers to access needed videos on their own time, and use on-site time for professional conversations around the topics they are studying, and define specific challenges in their own practice and search PD 360 for answers.
Using the Applied Differentiation Map
Michelle Goeglein is a fourth grade teacher at Woodstock Elementary in Murray, Utah. She used the applied differentiation map to organize a lesson and activities on the water cycle. To aid in her planning, Michelle made a large version of the map. She explains how this occurred:
This is how the plan works for me, and I like this model. Even for something as simple as we are doing today, it is important to know what we want them to understand when we get done with this cute thing we’re doing. And that’s the hardest chunk, I think—what we want them to understand.
Segment 01: Understanding 4MAT with Bernice McCarthyEach of us approaches a new learning experience differently. The 4MAT system uses those differences to help all students feel comfortable with their own style while broadening other learning abilities. Learn more
Segment 02: 4 Major Learning StylesWhen the dimensions of perceiving and processing are juxtaposed, a model of four major learning styles emerges: imaginative learners, analytic learners, common sense learners, and dynamic learners. The imaginative learners are found in quadrant one. They prefer to learn through a combination of sensing, feeling, and watching. Learn more
Segment 03: Brain Processing Techniques with Bernice McCarthyThe final dimension of the 4MAT system comes from research on the different functions of the two hemispheres of the brain. Right-mode functioning is visual and holistic. It provides a broad view of things and is able to see patterns and connections. Problem-solving in the right mode begins with looking at the whole picture. Intuition, beliefs, and opinions are key processing strategies in the right mode. Learn more
Segment 04: Applying 4MAT with Bernice McCarthyWhile students may favor a particular quadrant, they should be taken through the entire learning cycle in order to be challenged in some areas while feeling more comfortable in others. Learn more
Segment 05: Designing Instruction with Bernice McCarthy4MAT builds on every student's strengths while also helping them to develop new learning skills. The 4MAT system was developed by Dr. Bernice McCarthy and is based on a cycle of four primary learning styles. When educators combine these four learning styles with right- and left-brain processing techniques, students develop a powerful, holistic learning experience consisting of eight steps. This program provides examples of teachers implementing the steps in each quadrant to design instruction for all age groups. Learn more
Segment 06: The Four Quadrants with Bernice McCarthyBeginning with Quadrant One, teachers must be able to answer the question, "Why am I teaching this concept?" Answering that question in turn helps students find meaning in what is being taught. Learn more
Segment 07: Teacher Collaboration with Bernice McCarthyLearning Differences - Teacher Collaboration with Bernice McCarthy Learn more
Segment 01: Introduction to Dynamics of Change with Michael Fullan and John R. ChamplinEducators must understand the dynamics of change if they are going to make successful changes in their schools and their classrooms. People universally believe that schools can improve, but politically motivated educational change may be counter-productive. Educators can work toward sound change to improve the quality of learning, or they can become the victim of mandated change. Learn more
Segment 02: The Change Process/Initiation with Michael Fullan and John R. ChamplinInitiation, implementation, and institutionalization—these are three overlapping phases of the change process. Accord to Michael Fullan, “Change projects get started, get initiated, somehow. We move in to make them work—that’s implementation. Then after two or three or four years we see if they stay around, if they are institutionalized or not.” Learn more
Segment 03: Implementation with Michael Fullan and John R. ChamplinFollowing initiation, the implementation factors provide the ongoing sustaining power to establish strong utilization of the innovation. Every change is associated with a momentary loss of productivity. That is the nature of implementation. Educators must be conscious and accepting of the initial challenges associated with implementing change so that they will be able to ultimately realize the improvements that come through change. Learn more
Segment 04: Institutionalization with Michael Fullan and John R. ChamplinThe ultimate goal of change is institutionalization, in which the new program is incorporated into the school’s system and becomes part of the school’s culture. Institutionalization is marked by embedding, links to instruction, widespread use, removal of competing priorities, and continuing assistance. Learn more
Segment 05: Introduction to Innovation Plan with Michael Fullan and John R. ChamplinSimply put, effective planning is nonlinear. Innovation in planning draws from many sources and can affect programs not directly related to your objectives. The entire school system is interconnected, and a change in one area affects every other area. You will learn that the vital principles of planning include a clear and compelling need. Planning is a collaborative effort, encouraging educators to work towards a vision of a desired future, plus training, support, and renewal. Learn more
Segment 06: Isolation Fragmentation with Michael Fullan and John R. ChamplinOne of the serious plagues stifling school progress is the isolation and fragmentation that educators endure in their classrooms, departments, schools, and districts. Learn more
Segment 07: Training, Support, and Renewal with Michael Fullan and John R. ChamplinChange is most effective and long lasting when educators involve parents and the community in the vision, training, and process of change. In this training segment, School Improvement Network has interviewed educators in Canada and in the United States on how to involve the community and help the parents and city leaders to understand the changes a school is trying to implement. Learn more
Questioning to Stimulate Learning and Thinking
Processing Student Responses
“What the literature seems to be in agreement about are these findings,” says Sattes. “First of all, high-achieving students receive more than their share of feedback. And they receive more praise than low achievers.”
“The second one is related to that,” she continues. “Everybody needs feedback. But low- achieving students need it more. They have a higher need for feedback. They are less sure of their answers than high achievers. So the first thing is we know high achievers get it more, low achievers need it more. We need to be sure every student in the class knows the correct answer. So feedback is important whether it is praise or corrective. And the fourth thing we say about feedback is that in discussion, particularly feedback, even though things might be going hot and heavy, feedback can really terminate thinking.”
Evaluation as a Form of Continuous Learning
"Evaluation as a form of continuous Learning for the paraprofessional" provides ongoing support and growth.
Jill Morgan, Education Consultant in Swansea, Wales, gives a presentation to an audience of professional educators, and discusses the evaluation process.
“A good professional approach here to the evaluation is to look at the positive aspects,” she says. “There are always things you can find to criticize. You can always find dust if you want to look for it. Let's take a positive approach to evaluation and supervision.”
Evaluation is a natural extension of classroom practice focused on improving services to students.
Using Data to Close the Achievement Gap
Student Achievement Best Practices
By assessing policies, practices, programs, interventions, and school culture, schools will extend data's reach as they move deeper into the use of data to close the achievement gap.
Dr. Ruth S. Johnson, professor at California State University, talks about the usefulness of data in education.
“What does it look like in an underachieving school,” she asks, “and what does it look like in a higher achieving school? There are differences in the behavior of people in schools. So you look at that and that's a piece of data. You look at expectations and you look at instruction. Is the instruction responsive to kids from different backgrounds? As we look at our curriculum we should ask, what is the rigor of the curriculum? As we look at where the school is on the dimension around use of data, it's not looking at data when the test scores come out. Everybody looks at the data and says we did better or we did worse than last year. But is there a data used culture in the school where, when people are sitting down and looking at student work, or looking at what's going on in the school, that they're informed and that they're getting information to inform their work?”